Fixing include_bytes!

Rust's include_bytes! macro lets you statically include the contents of a file into your executable's binary. The builtin is a quick-and-dirty solution for packaging data with your executable, and perhaps even helping the compiler optimize your code! Unfortunately, it's difficult to use correctly.

A few years ago, for coursework, I implemented a basic neural network for recognizing digits. Ever-obsessed with having the fastest implementation in the class, I statically included the learned network parameters:

pub fn recognize(input: &Matrix<f64, U1, U784>) -> usize
    static RAW_WEIGHT : &'static [u8; 62_720] = include_bytes!("/weight.bin");

    static RAW_BIAS : &'static [u8; 80] = include_bytes!("/bias.bin");

    let WEIGHT: &Matrix<f64, U784, U10> = unsafe{ mem::transmute(RAW_WEIGHT) };

    let BIAS: &Matrix<f64, U1, U10> = unsafe{ mem::transmute(RAW_BIAS) };

    network::recognize(input, WEIGHT, BIAS)

This is wrong, and I got lucky.

A Matrix<f64, U784, U10> has a minimum alignment of 8, but include_bytes! merely produces a reference to a byte array—with no care for alignment.

How can we ensure the included bytes are properly aligned?

Prior Art: include_bytes_align_as!

On the Rust Users Forum, user ExpHP devised an include_bytes_align_as macro that produces the included bytes, aligned a given type:

macro_rules! include_bytes_align_as {
    ($align_ty:ty, $path:literal) => {{
        pub struct AlignedAs<Align, Bytes: ?Sized> {
            pub _align: [Align; 0],
            pub bytes: Bytes,

        static ALIGNED: &AlignedAs::<$align_ty, [u8]> = &AlignedAs {
            _align: [],
            bytes: *include_bytes!($path),


struct Align4096;

static A: &'static [u8] = include_bytes!("");
static B: &'static [u8] = include_bytes_align_as!(f64, ""); // alignment of 8
static C: &'static [u8] = include_bytes_align_as!(Align4096, ""); // alignment of 4096

The implementation of this macro exploits a really neat trick: the type AlignedAs will have the alignment characteristics of Align, but contain the bytes of Bytes.

Unfortunately, Rust cannot infer the correct alignment for us—it's entirely up to pass the macro a type that exemplifies our desired alignment. Can we improve on this?

An Alternative: include_transmute!

Yes! If we fuse the include and transmutation together, Rust will correctly-align its output without an extra macro argument; e.g.:

pub fn recognize(input: &Matrix<f64, U1, U784>) -> usize
    static WEIGHT: &Matrix<f64, U784, U10> = unsafe{ include_transmute!("/weight.bin") };

    static BIAS: &Matrix<f64, U1, U10> = unsafe{ include_transmute!("/weight.bin") };

    network::recognize(input, &WEIGHT, &BIAS)

Here's how:

macro_rules! include_transmute {
    ($file:expr) => {

That's really all there is to it!

Why does this work? The mem::transmute intrinsic consumes its argument, copies its bits to space reserved for a value of the destination type, then forgets the original value. That space reserved for the destination type is aligned according to the needs of the destination type, not the needs of the source type.

MSRV Note: mem::transmute is usable in static and const initializer contexts only as of Rust 1.46.0, which (at the time of writing) is in beta.


Thanks to /u/RustMeUP for finding the bug in my motivating example!